Molecular Genetics Goals
- Be able to explain that genes are made up of DNA and describe the process of how they code for specific proteins.
- Describe the four nucleic acids which make up DNA and how they are paired (A, C, G and T).
- Provide mechanistic explanation for the statement, “Genes are the instructional units and proteins are the functional units.”
- Describe the function of proteins such as: acting as enzymes; transport & storage molecules; mediator of cell responses and several other important bodily functions.
- Be able to describe mechanistically how a mutation could potentially change the phenotype of an organism by changing its genetic makeup.
- Give examples of causes of mutations and their relative frequency.
- Explain process of how a gene is read and converted into a protein (transcription & translation) and cite examples of specific genes and the reactions their corresponding proteins catalyze.
- Be able to explain that in the process of transcription the DNA sequence is copied to produce a complementary nucleotide RNA strand. Three nucleotides of RNA are then translated into an amino acid on a ribosome. A series of amino acids are then joined together to form a protein.
- Be able to describe the movement of an individual chromosome during meiosis, making sure to note their replication and the fact that they are allocated to one of four haploid daughter cells.
- Explain that chromosomes are made up of genes and are located in the cell nucleus.
- Explain why sexual reproduction (the fusion of an egg and sperm cell) is such an important source of genetic variation. Sexual reproduction occurs when an egg and sperm cell unite each containing only one representative from each chromosome pair.
- Be able to explain why it is important that offspring receive only one representative from each chromosome pair from each parent.